(Hailing Jin, UC Berkeley)
The active defense of plants against pathogens often includes rapid and localized cell death known as hypersensitive response (HR). Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are implicated in this event based on studies using protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. Recent transient gain-of-function studies demonstrated that the activation of salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wounding-induced protein kinase (WIPK), two tobacco mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by their upstream MAPK kinase (MAPKK), NtMEK2 leads to HR-like cell death. The conserved kinase interaction motif (KIM) in MAPKKs is required for NtMEK2 function. Mutation of the conserved basic amino acids in this motif, or the deletion of N-terminal 64 amino acids containing this motif significantly compromised or abolished the ability of NtMEK2DD to activate SIPK/WIPK in vivo. These mutants were also defective in interacting with SIPK and WIPK, suggesting protein-protein interaction is required for the functional integrity of this MAPK cascade. To eliminate Agrobacterium that is known to activate a number of defense responses in transient transformation experiments, we generated permanent transgenic plants. Induction of NtMEK2DD expression by dexamethasone induced HR-like death in both T1 and T2 plants. In addition, by using PVX-induced gene silencing, we demonstrated that the suppression of all three known components in the NtMEK2-SIPK/WIPK pathway attenuated N gene-mediated TMV resistance. Together with previous reports that SIPK and WIPK are activated by TMV in a gene-for-gene-dependent manner, we conclude that NtMEK2-SIPK/WIPK pathway plays a positive role in N gene-mediated resistance, possibly through regulating HR cell death.
Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are rapidly activated upon plant recognition of invading pathogens. Here, we describe the use of virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) to study the role of candidate plant MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) homologs of human MEKK1 in pathogen-resistance pathways. We demonstrate that silencing expression of a tobacco MAPKKK, Nicotiana Protein Kinase 1 (NPK1), interferes with the function of the disease resistance genes N, Bs2 and Rx, but does not affect Pto- and Cf4-mediated resistance. Further, NPK1-silenced plants also exhibit reduced cell size, defective cytokinesis, and an overall dwarf phenotype. Out results provide evidence that NPK1 functions in the regulation of N-, Bs2-, and Rx-mediated resistance responses and may play a role in one or more MAPK cascades, regulating multiple cellular processes.
- Jin, H., Axtell, M. J., Dahlbeck, D., Ekwenna, O., Zhang, S., Staskawicz, B., Baker, B. (2002) NPK1, an MEKK1-like mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, regulates innate immunity and development in plants Dev. Cell 3:291-297